Imaging and Investigations

Dr Miller carries out advanced imaging tests to diagnose retinal diseases. Both ophthalmologists are specialists in diagnostic procedures, OCT, OCTA, FFA, ICG and VF.

Imaging tests include:

Optical coherence tomography (OCT)

Optical coherence tomography is a non-invasive diagnostic test that utilises light waves to create cross-sectional images of the retina. With OCT, ophthalmologists can view the distinct layers of the retina, which allows Dr Miller to measure and map the thickness of the eye. OCT assists in the diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration.

For OCT, Dr Miller uses drops to dilate the pupils and examine the entire structure of the eye. Patients sit in front of the OCT machine and place their heads on a stand. The equipment scans the retina, which takes about fifteen minutes. If eye drops were used, the eyes would be sensitive to light hours after the exam.

Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA)

Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA) is a revolutionary imaging test that provides a comprehensive view of the vascular system in various choroidal and retinal layers. A particular benefit of OCTA is that it takes less time than a dye-based test and doesn't require any planning beforehand. OCTA produces clear three-dimensional pictures of different layers of retinal vasculature. These images enable Dr Miller to view specific micro areas of the retina which fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICG) fail to pick up.

Fundus Fluorescein Angiography (FFA)

Fundus Fluorescein Angiography (FFA) is a procedure that’s used to examine the back part of the eye. A limited amount of yellow fluorescein dye moves throughout the vein in the arm to the eye where blood vessels brighten-up. FFA reveals leaky blood vessels and inadequate blood supply at the backend of the eye. The entire procedure takes fifteen minutes. Eye drops dilate the eyes and provide a clear view of the fundus, the back part of the retina. A tube known as an intravenous cannula provides access for the dye to enter the vein and reach the eye. A series of photographs captures images of the eye.

Indocyanine Green Angiography (ICG)

Indocyanine Green Angiography (ICG) detects problematic blood vessels within the choroid beneath the retina. Indocyanine, a non-toxic green dye releases infrared light. The dye travels throughout the bloodstream into the blood vessels of the eye. A camera that connects to a computer detects infrared light and takes pictures of blood circulation in the eye. Naturally, the liver rids the body of the dye.

Visual Field Test (VF)

A visual field test (VF) evaluates the patient’s scope of vision which includes the central and peripheral vision. VF test maps the visual fields of each eye and finds blind spots (scotomas). A VF test detects optic nerve damage and glaucoma. Usually, a VF test is performed on each eye individually. The patient's eyes must remain fixed in one position only to map the peripheral visual field accurately.


How long does a typical eye exam take?
Most eye exams last between an hour and ninety minutes.
How long do eye imaging tests take?
Depending on the type of imaging done, it can take between half an hour to an hour to give you complete results.
Do you have to recover from imaging of the eye?
If your pupils need to be dilated, it may take up to six hours for your eyes to return to normal.
Is eye imaging painful?
Dr Miller performs painless eye imaging tests and investigations.